Super-Sized Stimulus

Senior Fellow Kevin A. Hassett
Senior Fellow
Kevin A. Hassett

Responding to fears shared by most economists that the current recession might turn into a depression, President-elect Obama pulled out all the stops in early January and proposed the mother of all stimulus packages. He would devote as much as $775 billion over the next two years to stimulus.

The proposed package consists of both spending and tax measures. The proposed increase in spending is a massive $475 billion, roughly 3 percent of GDP. In addition, a tax cut of up to $300 billion would amount to about 2 percent of GDP.

Major Countercyclical Tax Changes during Postwar Periods
Source for first three bars: Christina D. Romer and David H. Romer, "A Narrative Analysis of Post-War Tax Changes," University of California, Berkeley, November 2008. Other sources: Wall Street Journal, BEA.

Traditionally, stimulus packages have focused on tax measures. Spending has not generally increased enormously during recessions. The massive spending increase is, then, unprecedented.

The history of stimulus has been studied by Obama's designee for chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers, Christina Romer, and her husband, David. Although taxes change over time for many reasons, the Romers' study identifies the changes that are designed to be short-term stimulus. The nearby chart compares previous tax measures with the Obama proposal as percentages of GDP.

The first bar on the chart is the Tax Reform Act of 1969, which gradually phased out a 10 percent income-tax surcharge, expanded the personal exemption, increased the standard deduction, repealed a 7 percent investment tax credit, and included a handful of other reform and relief provisions. It was a bit larger than 1 percent of GDP.

The next three measures were significantly smaller. The Tax Reduction Act of 1975 contained several temporary tax-relief provisions, including rebates, an increase in the standard deduction, new tax credits, and a temporary increase in the investment tax credit.

The Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 fulfilled President Bush's campaign promise of a significant tax cut and addressed an impending economic slowdown. The bill reduced marginal tax rates and created a new 10 percent tax bracket. It also expanded the child credit, increased contribution limits for retirement plans, and reduced or eliminated the estate and gift taxes.

Just after 9/11, President Bush and Congress enacted additional tax relief designed to spur business investment. The legislation allowed firms to carry back losses up to five years and claim a bonus depreciation on new investments.

The Obama proposal is almost twice as large as the most significant stimulus bill, the 1969 act. Obama also proposes a spending increase that dwarfs anything in past cycles. One would have to go all the way back to World War II to find such drastic government action.

Kevin A. Hassett is a senior fellow and the director of economic policy studies at AEI.

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About the Author

 

Kevin A.
Hassett
  • Kevin A. Hassett is the State Farm James Q. Wilson Chair in American Politics and Culture at the American Enterprise Institute (AEI). He is also a resident scholar and AEI's director of economic policy studies.



    Before joining AEI, Hassett was a senior economist at the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and an associate professor of economics and finance at Columbia (University) Business School. He served as a policy consultant to the US Department of the Treasury during the George H. W. Bush and Bill Clinton administrations.

    Hassett has also been an economic adviser to presidential candidates since 2000, when he became the chief economic adviser to Senator John McCain during that year's presidential primaries. He served as an economic adviser to the George W. Bush 2004 presidential campaign, a senior economic adviser to the McCain 2008 presidential campaign, and an economic adviser to the Mitt Romney 2012 presidential campaign.

    Hassett is the author or editor of many books, among them "Rethinking Competitiveness" (2012), "Toward Fundamental Tax Reform" (2005), "Bubbleology: The New Science of Stock Market Winners and Losers" (2002), and "Inequality and Tax Policy" (2001). He is also a columnist for National Review and has written for Bloomberg.

    Hassett frequently appears on Bloomberg radio and TV, CNBC, CNN, Fox News Channel, NPR, and "PBS NewsHour," among others. He is also often quoted by, and his opinion pieces have been published in, the Los Angeles Times, The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, and The Washington Post.

    Hassett has a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Pennsylvania and a B.A. in economics from Swarthmore College.

  • Phone: 202-862-7157
    Email: khassett@aei.org
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    Name: Emma Bennett
    Phone: 202-862-5862
    Email: emma.bennett@aei.org

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