Development Beyond Aid: Remaking U.S. Development Policy for a Changed World

Speaker biographies

Carol Adelman is the director of the Hudson Institute’s Center for Global Prosperity, where she produces the annual Index of Global Philanthropy. Ms. Adelman also serves as the vice chair of the advisory committee on voluntary foreign aid at the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). She writes and speaks regularly on economic development, foreign aid, global philanthropy, international health, and leadership and management issues. Previously, she was the vice chair of the U.S. Commission on Helping to Enhance the Livelihood of People, a bipartisan commission to reform foreign aid, and served as an assistant administrator of USAID. Over the past thirty years, Ms. Adelman has served as the director, a consultant, and a member of numerous nonprofit organizations, including the Center for International Private Enterprise of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, the Atlantic Council, the Council on Foreign Relations, and the American Red Cross. Ms. Adelman has appeared on numerous radio and television outlets, including CNN, PBS, Fox News, C-SPAN, and the BBC. Her articles have appeared in the Wall Street Journal, the New York Times, Foreign Affairs, the Harvard International Review, the Lancet, the British Medical Journal, American Outlook, Policy Review, and the Christian Science Monitor.

Roger Bate is a resident fellow at AEI. He researches aid policy in Africa and the developing world, evaluating the performance and effectiveness of the U.S. Agency for International Development, the World Bank, the Millennium Challenge Corporation, NGOs, and other aid organizations and development policy initiatives. He writes extensively on topics such as endemic diseases in developing countries (malaria, HIV/AIDS); taxes and tariffs; water policy; access and innovation in pharmaceuticals; and international health agreements. Mr. Bate’s writings have appeared in, among others, the Wall Street Journal, the Financial Times, the Lancet, and the British Medical Journal. His most recent book is Making a Killing: the Deadly Implications of the Counterfeit Drug Trade (AEI Press, May 2008).

Arthur C. Brooks is the president of the American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, a position he assumed on January 1, 2009. He was previously the Louis A. Bantle Professor of Business and Government Policy at Syracuse University’s Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs and a visiting scholar at AEI. Mr. Brooks researches and writes about the connections between culture, politics, and economic life in America. He is the author of several books, including Who Really Cares: The Surprising Truth about Compassionate Conservatism (Basic Books, 2006), Gross National Happiness: Why Happiness Matters for America—and How We Can Get More of It (Basic Books, 2008), and Social Entrepreneurship: A Modern Approach to Social Value Creation (Prentice Hall, 2008).

Lawrence Crandall is a retired foreign service officer with thirty years experience with the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), where he managed large and politically complex development programs. In his time at USAID he served as the executive director of the U.S.-Asia Environmental Partnership and was a mission director for USAID Afghanistan from 1985 to 1990. In 2004, he was called back into the foreign service to be the civilian deputy at the program management office of the Coalition Provisional Authority in Baghdad. He most recently served as an adviser to the RAND Corporation, the Marine Corps University at Quantico Virginia, AEI, and the U.S. Institute for Peace on counterinsurgency operations. Mr. Crandall is also the chairman and CEO of National Logistics and Construction, a wholly-owned Afghan enterprise.

Mauro De Lorenzo is a resident fellow in foreign and defense policy studies at AEI, where he studies private sector-based approaches to development in postconflict and post-Socialist countries; Chinese investment and political influence outside the Pacific region, particularly in Africa; and democratic accountability in aid-receiving countries. In 2005, Mr. De Lorenzo worked as a consultant to Afghan construction companies in Kabul, and prior to that he was a research associate at both the American University in Cairo and the Makerere Institute of Social Research in Kampala, Uganda, focusing on refugee policy and the wars in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, and Burundi. In 2002, he researched and was associate producer of The Price of Aid, a BBC documentary about U.S. food aid to Africa.

Simeon Djankov is the creator of the World Bank’s Doing Business report series. In his dozen years at the World Bank, he has worked on regional trade agreements in North Africa, enterprise restructuring and privatization in transitioning economies, corporate governance in East Asia, and global regulatory reforms. Mr. Djankov was a principal author of the World Development Report 2002. He has published over seventy articles in academic journals, including the Quarterly Journal of Economics, the American Economic Review, the Journal of Finance, the Journal of Financial Economics, the Journal of Public Economics, and the Journal of Comparative Economics.

Thomas Donnelly is a resident fellow in defense and security policy studies at AEI. He is the author, with Frederick W. Kagan, of Ground Truth: The Future of U.S. Land Power (AEI Press, May 2008); the coeditor, with Gary J. Schmitt, of Of Men and Materiel: The Crisis in Military Resources (AEI Press, 2007); and the author of The Military We Need (AEI Press, 2005), Operation Iraqi Freedom: A Strategic Assessment (AEI Press, 2004), and several other books. From 1995 to 1999, he was policy group director and a professional staff member for the House Armed Services Committee. Mr. Donnelly also served as a member of the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission. He is a former editor of Armed Forces Journal, Army Times, and Defense News.

Mark Dybul serves as the U.S. global AIDS coordinator, leading the implementation of President Bush’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, at the U.S. State Department. Ambassador Dybul oversees all government engagement in the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and currently serves as the chair of the Global Fund’s finance and audit committee. Ambassador Dybul also served as the vice chair and is the current chair of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS coordinating board. He also serves as a member of the board of trustees at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Previously, he served in several senior positions at the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Ambassador Dybul is an assistant surgeon general and a rear admiral in the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, the uniformed service of HHS, and is also a former member of the World Health Organization’s writing committee to develop global HIV therapy guidelines.

Nicholas Eberstadt holds the Henry Wendt Chair in Political Economy at AEI and is also a senior adviser to the National Bureau of Asian Research in Seattle. He serves on the advisory board of the Korea Economic Institute of America and is a founding member of the U.S. Committee for Human Rights in North Korea. Mr. Eberstadt is currently, inter alia, a member of the President’s Council on Bioethics and the Visiting Committee for the Harvard School of Public Health. Mr. Eberstadt is regularly consulted by governmental and international organizations, including the U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. State Department, the U.S. Agency for International Development, and the World Bank. Mr. Eberstadt has published over three hundred studies and articles in scholarly and popular journals, mainly on topics in demography, international development, and East Asian security. His dozen-plus books and monographs include Poverty of Communism (Transaction, 1988); The Tyranny of Numbers (AEI Press, 1995); The End of North Korea (AEI Press, 1999); Korea’s Future and the Great Power (National Bureau of Asian Research, 2001); The North Korean Economy: Between Crisis and Catastrophe (Transaction, 2007); Europe’s Coming Demographic Challenge: Unlocking the Value of Health (AEI Press, 2007); and most recently, The Poverty of ‘The Poverty Rate’: Measure and Mismeasure of Want in Modern America (AEI Press, 2008).

Michael Fairbanks is a cofounder of S.E.VEN Fund, a philanthropic foundation run by entrepreneurs that produces films, books, and original research aimed at increasing the rate of diffusion of enterprise solutions to global poverty. Mr. Fairbanks is also the founder and chairman emeritus of the OTF Group, a Boston-based consulting firm that focuses on developing nations. A banker and investor, he is a founding shareholder in Merrimack Pharmaceuticals and he has served as a visiting fellow at the Hoover Institution at Stanford, a lecturer at Harvard, and an adjunct professor at Georgetown University and the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University. His most recent projects include advising the president of the Inter-American Development Bank; working for the President of Rwanda to improve the tourism, coffee, and agro-industry sectors; and advising Afghanistan’s minister of finance on private-sector reforms. His forthcoming book, titled In the River They Swim: Essays from Around the World on Enterprise Solutions to Poverty, is due out in the spring of 2009.

Lado Gurgenidze served as the prime minister of Georgia from November 2007 until November 2008. A dual citizen of Georgia and the United Kingdom, Mr. Gurgenidze is a career banker. Prior to his appointment as prime minister, he served as chairman of the supervisory board and as the CEO of the Bank of Georgia. Previously, he was the managing director and regional manager for Europe at Putnam Lovell NBF, a leading global boutique investment firm focusing on the financial services sector. Mr. Gurgenidze has also served in various senior capacities at ABN AMRO Corporate Finance. He started his investment banking career with the CEE corporate finance arm of MeesPierson, one of the oldest Dutch banks.

Aubrey Hruby is the managing director at the Whitaker Group, a strategic consulting firm focused primarily on Africa. Through her current position and her previous post as the director of trade and investment, she has helped to facilitate nearly 1 billion dollars in investment in Africa. Ms. Hruby works with the governments of African nations to design and execute innovative trade and investment strategies and with leading U.S. companies to enhance their operations in Africa. Prior to joining Whitaker in 2005, Ms. Hruby was an international trade specialist at the Barnett Group LLC, and also worked as an assistant to former secretary of state Madeleine Albright in 2004. Ms. Hruby speaks regularly on African business issues and has addressed the American Bar Association, the Society for International Development, and the International Studies Association.

William Inboden is the senior vice president of the Legatum Institute, an independent research, policy, and advisory organization which researches and promotes the principles that drive the creation of global prosperity and the expansion of human liberty. Previously, he served as the senior director for strategic planning on the National Security Council at the White House, where he worked on a range of foreign policy issues including the National Security Strategy, democracy and governance, contingency planning, counter-radicalization, and multilateral institutions and initiatives. Prior to that, Mr. Inboden worked at the U.S. State Department as a member of the policy planning staff and a special adviser in the Office of International Religious Freedom. He was also a Civitas Fellow at AEI, and has worked as a staff member in both the U.S. Senate and the House of Representatives. His most recent book is Religion and Foreign Policy, 1945-1960: The Soul of Containment (Cambridge University Press, 2008).

Colonel Robert Killebrew, U.S. Army (retired), is a private consultant in national defense issues. He is a retired Army infantry colonel with service in U.S. Army Special Forces and airborne units and has taught national and military strategy at the Army War College. While on active duty, he inaugurated the "Army after Next" project that became the Army transformation war-game series. Since retirement, he has served on the U.S. Commission on National Security/21st Century (the Hart-Rudman Commission), as well as other Defense Department and private studies of national defense issues, and has consulted for the military services and defense industries. He has written extensively in a variety of publications on emerging defense issues, most recently in the Washington Post on the political future of Islamic radicalism.

Alan Larson is a senior international policy adviser for Covington & Burling LLP, where he provides clients with strategic advice, counseling, and representation on international business and public policy issues. His practice includes international trade, investment, and acquisitions, focusing on the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States; sanctions and trade compliance; international energy transactions; protection of intellectual property; and compliance with antibribery rules. Mr. Larson is a member of the Board of Counselors of McLarty Associates. He is the chairman of Transparency International/USA, a board member of Bread for the World, and a distinguished fellow at the Council on Competitiveness. He previously served as undersecretary of state for economics and is a career ambassador, the U.S. State Department’s highest honor.

Philip I. Levy studies international trade and development at AEI. Before joining AEI, he handled international economic issues as a member of the secretary of state’s policy planning staff (2005–2006), was a senior economist for trade on the President’s Council of Economic Advisers (2003–2005), and was a faculty member in Yale University’s department of economics (1994–2003). An economist by training, he has experience in many international trade and development policy issues, including free trade agreements, trade with China, antidumping policy, welfare effects of globalization, U.S. foreign assistance policy, and economic development policy.

Vijay Mahajan holds the John P. Harbin Centennial Chair in Business at the McCombs School of Business at the University of Texas at Austin. He has written extensively on product diffusion, marketing strategy, and marketing research methodologies, and has published work in numerous academic journals, including the Harvard Business Review. Mr. Mahajan has given research presentations at more than eighty universities and research institutions worldwide, has consulted for both government and industry, and has offered executive development programs in the United States, Asia, and South America. Mr. Mahajan is coauthor or coeditor of five books and serves on the editorial review boards of several academic journals, including the Journal of Marketing Research, the Journal of Consumer Research, the Journal of Marketing, and Marketing Science.

John McArthur is the CEO and executive director of Millennium Promise, a nonprofit organization that works with impoverished communities, national and local governments, and partner organizations to achieve the United Nations Millennium Development Goals in Africa. He is also a research associate at the Earth Institute at Columbia University, where he previously served as the policy director. Mr. McArthur is also the cochair of the commission on education for International Development Professionals. Previously, he served as the deputy director and manager of the United Nations Millennium Project and was the lead editor of the project’s final report to the secretary general. Mr. McArthur was a research fellow at the Center for International Development at Harvard University, where he coauthored the World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Report.

Emeka Okafor is the Technology, Entertainment, Design (TED) Africa director and was the director for the TED Global Conference 2007, an annual conference which brings together the world’s most fascinating thinkers and doers. His interests include sustainable technologies in the developing world and paradigm breaking technologies in general. Mr. Okafor also writes two blogs, Timbuktu Chronicles and Africa Unchained, which seek to spur dialogue in areas of entrepreneurship, technology, and the scientific method as it impacts Africa.

John Orrison is a vice president at Burlington Northern Santa Fe (BNSF) Railway. In this capacity, he consulted the president of Rwanda on the construction of railway lines linking that nation with other neighboring countries. Mr. Orrison began his railroad career at the Norfolk Southern in 1976, and joined the CSX Corporation as an assistant terminal trainmaster in Hamlet, N.C., in 1985. He served in various positions at CSX, including division superintendent in Detroit and a variety of service design and planning posts. Mr. Orrison was also at Pacer Stacktrain from 2002 to 2004.

Mead Over is a senior fellow at the Center for Global Development (CGD), where he works on issues related to cost-effective health interventions in developing countries. In addition to research on the determinants of adherence to AIDS treatment in poor countries, he is working on optimal pricing of health care services, on the measurement and explanation of the efficiency of health service delivery in poor countries, and on optimal interventions to control a possible global influenza pandemic. Prior to joining the CGD in 2006, Mr. Over served for twenty years at the World Bank. Much of his work since 1987¬—first at the World Bank and now at the CGD—has focused on the economics of the AIDS epidemic.

Steven Radelet is a senior fellow at the Center for Global Development, where he works on issues related to foreign aid, developing country debt, economic growth, and trade between rich and poor countries. He was the deputy assistant secretary of the U.S. Treasury for Africa, the Middle East, and Asia from January 2000 until June 2002. Previously, he was on the faculty of Harvard University, where he was a fellow at the Harvard Institute for International Development, the director of the Institute’s macroeconomics program, and a lecturer on economics and public policy. He has served as an adviser on macroeconomic policy to the Indonesian and Gambian ministries of finance and he currently serves an economic adviser to the president and the minister of finance of Liberia.

Vijaya Ramachandran is a senior fellow at the Center for Global Development (CGD), where she manages corporate engagement efforts and she oversees the CGD’s work program on fragile states. Her areas of expertise are private sector development, entrepreneurship, and foreign direct investment. Most recently, Ms. Ramachandran’s research has focused on the analysis of enterprise survey data from several countries in sub-Saharan Africa, identifying the constraints of doing business from the perspective of the private sector. Prior to joining the CGD, Ms. Ramachandran served on the faculty of Georgetown University. She also worked at the World Bank, the executive office of the United Nations secretary general, and at Duke University.

Mary Ryckman is the assistant U.S. Trade Representative for trade and development. She is responsible for coordinating U.S. trade capacity building activities, which help developing countries participate in the global trading system. Ms. Ryckman works closely with other federal agencies, international organizations, the private sector, and nongovernmental organizations in order to development the broadest possible response to the needs of our trading partners. In addition, she is responsible for the U.S. Generalized System of Preferences program, which provides duty-free access for certain products from developing and least developed countries. Previously, Ms. Ryckman was the deputy assistant U.S. Trade Representative for Canada and was responsible for trade and investment issues with that country. She has over fifteen years of negotiating experience covering trade issues, including bilateral investment treaties and the multilateral agreement on investment negotiations at the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

Kim Tan is the founding chairman of SpringHill Management Ltd., a private equity fund management company which invests in emerging markets. Mr. Tan is also a director of Active Capital Trust Plc, an investment trust company, and he is the founding chairman of AsiaPrise Biotech Sdn Bhd. He is also a director of a number of listed and private biotech and pharmaceutical companies in the United Kingdom, the United States, India, and Malaysia. Mr. Tan is an adviser to a number of government agencies in Asia on biotechnology and chairs the Research Expert Working Group for the Asia Pacific Economic Community life science forum.

Richard Tren is a founder and the director of the health policy and advocacy group, Africa Fighting Malaria (AFM), which has offices in South Africa and the United States. AFM is one of the few malaria advocacy groups that promotes the increased use of indoor spraying of insecticides for malaria control. Mr. Tren is an economist and has researched and written widely on health and development, with a particular focus on malaria and other communicable diseases. He is also a council member of the Free Market Foundation of Southern Africa.

Éliane Ubalijoro is an adjunct professor of practice for public and private sector partnerships at McGill University’s Centre for Developing-Area Studies, where her research interests focus on innovation in global health and agriculture. Previously, Ms. Ubalijoro was an assistant professor in McGill’s department of agricultural and environmental sciences. She is a member of the presidential advisory council for Rwandan president Paul Kagame. Ms. Ubalijoro is involved in various capacity building initiatives to harness the bioeconomy for Africa and is a coinventor on six patent-pending technologies related to molecular diagnostics of food borne pathogens. She was a scientific research and development director for five years at a Montreal-based biotechnology company. Ms. Ubalijoro is researching a link between gender, sustainable development, biodiversity management, and peace building in Rwanda.

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