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Discussion: (42 comments)

  1. checked the website – and lots of good words about what they intend to do.

    so a question. what are the academic standards and what kind of accountability will be in place?

    All the schools that best us internationally – have national curriculums, national standards and national assessments.

    if the goal of public education – the use of taxes to pay for education – is to generate an employable workforce – what are the standards for achieving that goal and how do we assure that those standards are incorporated into a curriculum, and effectively taught so that the students end up with the education that was intended and promised?

    as long as tax dollars are involved, and the purpose is to produce an educated and employable workforce – that’s what drives the rest.

    one is always free to pursue something else for their kids but just as people who do not have kids – do pay taxes to support the goals of public education – you would also.

    Are there any industrialized countries that allow tax money for private education – education that may or may not produce a person with a competitive 21st century education.

    All of this goes back as to what justifies taxes towards public education… what are the intended goals?

    1. Once More Around The Block

      Larry, Our school system is broken. we are pouring money down a bureaucratic rat hole to appease the teachers unions across the country.

      You might note that the top college prep schools in this country, which are amongst the best high schools in the country, if not the best, all provide a classical education and curriculum.

      1. It’s just not true. We have way too much propaganda and not near enough facts here.

        Massachusetts ranks 7th in the world – even as most states in the US rank 25th or worse.

        there are excellent schools in the US – even where there are unions – as in Massachusetts.

        What Europe and Asia have is national standards, national curricula and national tests.

        any kid anywhere no matter where they move to – has to do the same education.

        In the US we have this dumbass idea that schools don’t need standards, curricula, testing, etc and that teachers, not the lack of standards is the problem.

        the states with the worst academic records are the right-to-work states.. you wanna blame that on teacher unions?

        1. The Mass. education standards, were, until 2010, some of the best in the country. The testing system was a good system too. This has now changed, with the MA adoption of the Common Core standards, which are very inferior to what MA schools have been using for the almost 20 years. See today’s Wall Street Journal OpEd section for details.

          1. we’ll see what happens with Common Core but basically it’s a step towards what the European and Asian country’s do that beat us academically.

            we are a mobile society – and we have 50 different education programs which don’t mesh.

            but worse that that – we have 50 different administrative processes that waste money hand over fist compared to one standard curriculum – like Europe and Asia have.

            The best states in the US for academics are not right-to-work states.

          2. common core give an opportunity – to do what Europe and Asia have with national standards.

            we are not pre-ordained to screw it up no more than Europe and Asia were – and they were not – they leverage it to a system that is better that ours.

            we can’t replicate that?

          3. LarryG,
            The Common Core (CC) is demonstrably a step down from the Mass. educ. standards that were in place until 2010 in ELA and Math. Why must the kids in Mass. be punished just so they can be like everyone else? Speaking of Asia, the finest math students in the world are in Singapore, Japan, and Korea. The CC math standards are nowhere near the standards in these countries. For example, the CC does not require the use of the standard arithmetic algorithms. In fact, the CC does not require any algorithm in addition until 4th grade, which should be taught in second or third grade. The CC has no requirement for mental mastery of the times-tables. The CC introduces division the same year it introduces algorthms for addition and subtraction….. the list goes on. FYI: I’m a math ed researcher.

          4. I’m not convinced it is a step down at this point and it offers a basic starting platform from which to go up.

            are you saying that common core, if implemented nationwide, would put us even lower of international academic rankings?

          5. Not sure about the CC science standards, I haven’t looked at the CC science standards. I am confident that the CC math standards will lower the US in the international ranking in math. The research is clear on what makes for good math achievement, and that is solid mental arithmetic skills in place by 4th grade, and fluency in all standard algorithms including long division, by 6th grade (e.g., the standard algors. for addition and subtraction should be mastered before 5th grade) Once these basic skills are in place, the student will do well in BOTH algebra and geometry through high school. Also, the research shows that calculator and computer use tends to suppress mental arithmetic skills and impedes math performance. CC math standards are silent on the use of calculators; they should have specifically prohibited the use of these tools in math through middle school.

        2. RFBrown

          Freedom trumps standardized and regimentation every time. Standards within and subordinate to parental freedom of choice of what to learn are probably useful; if you can’t measure it, you can’t improve it! But in all cases this is dependent on what the parental standards are: Judeo-Christian values focused on agape love of ‘neighbors’ described in the Bible are at the top of the list, while the hate, murder, slavery and death of the Koran are near the bottom. So, how do we as a society reconcile freedom with standards and limits?

          1. re: ” So, how do we as a society reconcile freedom with standards and limits?”

            how do the 25 counties that clean our clocks on academic performance do it?

  2. The truth shall set you free. Classical education, unlike contemporary education, is about truth in the service of freedom and the worship of God. Our govt. is no longer about freedom, but about power and control, which oppose freedom, and the truth.

    1. re: ” Our govt. is no longer about freedom”

      is that also true of all the other industrialized nations also?

      1. some guy

        Yeah, I’d be inclined to say so.

  3. It is too early to decide whether Common Core will work or not. However, many teachers resent the fact that it is so scripted with no flexibility. It may, however, force mediocre teachers to raise their teaching standards, which is good, but at the same time, straight-jacket the good teachers. That is why local standards are much better. It is impossible for one curriculum to work perfectly in every school. Students in already quality schools will suffer, while students in under-achieving schools might benefit. In Georgia, students throughout the state MUST read the same books, compiled by some state bureaucrat. One might wonder who does the selecting and why there is no variation.

    1. re: ” It is too early to decide whether Common Core will work or not. However, many teachers resent the fact that it is so scripted with no flexibility. It may, however, force mediocre teachers to raise their teaching standards, which is good, but at the same time, straight-jacket the good teachers. That is why local standards are much better. It is impossible for one curriculum to work perfectly in every school. Students in already quality schools will suffer, while students in under-achieving schools might benefit. In Georgia, students throughout the state MUST read the same books, compiled by some state bureaucrat. One might wonder who does the selecting and why there is no variation.”

      how do you explain the success of the 25 countries that best us academically when all of them have national curriculums?

      1. Because unlike the U.S., only students who pass yearly examinations are allowed to proceed further up the academic ladder, which means that many students who would like to get a college degree cannot. Many students do not test well, so this type of system based primarily on tests only serves a select group, which flies in the face of our democratic system.

        1. re: ” Because unlike the U.S., only students who pass yearly examinations are allowed to proceed further up the academic ladder, which means that many students who would like to get a college degree cannot.”

          there are two tracks in other countries – College and Technical – the technical track is just as robust but in a different way – but the goal is to prepare the students so they can get a job in a global economy.

          ” Many students do not test well, so this type of system based primarily on tests only serves a select group, which flies in the face of our democratic system.”

          that’s bull in my view. If that IS the case THEN provide another way to measure so that we know the student is mastering the material and if not we know and can render the type of help they need.

          1. Anyone who has worked in a school knows that not all children test well. Forcing some kids into technical schools because they aren’t as academic as others isn’t democratic. Not having a college degree is very limiting job-wise, since many jobs call for a B.A. as a minimum. Technical schools can be very challenging for some students who have learning disabilities because they often are based on memorization (i.e. nursing, computer science, etc.). Many students, even with low ACT scores, can successfully complete a college program with additional help, which most colleges provide (tutoring, extended time on tests, etc.). Why should these kids be deprived of the opportunity to accomplish getting a college degree because they don’t test well?

          2. re: ” Anyone who has worked in a school knows that not all children test well.”

            totally agree but in 30 other industrialized nations they figure out how to do this and it works and puts us at the bottom in academic comparisons.

            ” Forcing some kids into technical schools because they aren’t as academic as others isn’t democratic.”

            Jesus H Keeerist.. what happens if they screw up the SAT? or they can’t pass the army qualification exams?
            you compete for the opportunity …

            “Not having a college degree is very limiting job-wise, since many jobs call for a B.A. as a minimum. ”

            then find a school and a curriculum that fits you but if you don’t do good in K-12, your options are limited.

            “Technical schools can be very challenging for some students who have learning disabilities because they often are based on memorization (i.e. nursing, computer science, etc.).”

            you’ve got to be qualified. you’ve got to qualify. that’s life. you have to find the path for you but if you screw up K-12 – it’s going to be hard.

            “Many students, even with low ACT scores, can successfully complete a college program with additional help, which most colleges provide (tutoring, extended time on tests, etc.). Why should these kids be deprived of the opportunity to accomplish getting a college degree because they don’t test well?”

            I’m in favor of ANY alternative path for kids to be assessed SO THAT – the teachers KNOW where they eed help and can provide it.

            if you don’t test or similar you are doing the kid a tremendous disservice and helping to ruin his life later.

            In k-12 – learning the basics is fundamental.

            they say in K-3 – you learn to read and after that
            you are reading to learn.

            you have to be able to measure the kids knowledge and capabilities if you are going to be able to assist him in the areas he needs help on.

            You should want this.

            the first thing a tutor will do is try to find out where the child is ok and where he needs help.

          3. Parents decide if their children get promoted. If a child “fails” under whatever criteria is in place, the parents can say “I want little Timmy in the next grade next year” and it happens. It’s not about test taking ability, mastery of a standard, left or right brain or any other performance related criteria.

  4. Alice Teller

    The central issue here is the inability to choose teachers for intelligence and ability. Imagine how demoralizing it is to work alongside teachers who are the leftovers. Good teachers do teach facts, they also teach how to think and learn. It is both an art and a science. Our kids deserve the very best, something our government rarely mandates.

    1. are you saying that’s true in every state and how do you conclude that?

      Massachusetts is 7th in the world in academic achievement against other countries.

      Are their teachers “leftovers”?

      how would you determine who “leftovers” are in the first place and how would keep them from being hired ?

      1. LarryG
        1. Mass. teachers undergo a fairly rigorous testing process before they can teach. The first-round failure rate on this test is about 30% (this is from memory, the value might be off ) Many prospective teachers who would be hired in other states don’t even attempt it, because of the high likelihood of failure.
        2. The Mass. academic achievement is the result of (a) careful teacher screening (b) a rigorous student testing regimen, the MCAS, and (c) a very good set of academic curriculum standards that were in place for nearly 20 years. In 2010, these state standards were dumped and were replaced by the Common Core.

        1. re:

          “1. Mass. teachers undergo a fairly rigorous testing process before they can teach. The first-round failure rate on this test is about 30% (this is from memory, the value might be off ) Many prospective teachers who would be hired in other states don’t even attempt it, because of the high likelihood of failure.

          this is good! This is similar to Europe where about a thrid don’t meet the entry requirments. Are there teacher unions in Mass?

          “2. The Mass. academic achievement is the result of (a) careful teacher screening (b) a rigorous student testing regimen, the MCAS, and (c) a very good set of academic curriculum standards that were in place for nearly 20 years. In 2010, these state standards were dumped and were replaced by the Common Core.”

          half empty, half full?

          I think we need to propagate Mass approach to a national version (like Europe does) and I think one way to do that is to start with a common core standard and incrementally add to it from the better schools approaches.

          you can also layer on top of CC – it’s basic standards not monolithic ones.

          but let me go back to the topic at hand here also and that is the complaint that quasi / de facto private schools are hard to get approved.

          I’m in favor of competitive challenges to the public school system – as long as the standards are the same for both.

          In other words, let the quasi-private schools innovate teaching as long as results are measured and standards achieved.

          What puzzles me is that many of them are opposed to standards… want their own… and that’s what a lot of public schools have wanted – and it’s the polar opposite of the approach used by Europe and Asia – and Massachusetts.

      2. Alice Teller

        No school administrator should be forced to hire anyone. Teachers unions serve teachers not students. It is entirely reasonable to require teachers in a school which focuses on the classics to require that teachers be knowledgeable in that discipline. Who are the schools built to serve, teachers or students?

        1. schools are built to serve taxpayers. that’s the only justification for taxes.

          the purpose of schools is to produce a workforce that can compete for 21 century jobs.

          Can you do that with a “classics” program?

          that’s an elective… not a core discipline – not in a single one of the 25 countries that beat us academically – nor in Massachusetts.

          1. The purpose of schools is not to produce a competitive workforce. That sounds like communism, and I think most teachers would disagree with that. Education is supposed to produce literate citizens who are able to participate in our democracy by becoming critical thinkers, able to evaluate situations and make logical assessments. This can be accomplished with a classical education. Schools are not supposed to be appendages of big business.

          2. re: ” The purpose of schools is not to produce a competitive workforce. That sounds like communism, and I think most teachers would disagree with that. ”

            the purpose of taking taxes from everyone including those without kids is what?

            it’s to produce an employable workforce that will grow up to become taxpayers themselves and contribute so others can get educated.

            “Education is supposed to produce literate citizens who are able to participate in our democracy by becoming critical thinkers, able to evaluate situations and make logical assessments. This can be accomplished with a classical education. Schools are not supposed to be appendages of big business.”

            people have to grow up and become productive citizens.

            the hallmark of the 30 industrialized nations that sets them apart from 3rd world is

            1. – public education
            2. – high literacy rates
            3. – high productivity

            the purpose of taxpayer money is not to provide personalized educations…that are going to leave the individual dependent on others in the future.

            we want as many kids as possible to grow up well educated enough to compete successfully for global jobs so they too can pay taxes that will be used to educate subsequent kids.

            it’s our duty and responsibility.

          3. To LarryG:
            That’s why we need diversity in education, not a “one size fits all” as the Common Core is. Parents should be able to select schools based on what their children need, not on where they happen to live. Unfortunately, the monopoly of public education forces people to pay taxes to school districts that they may not even use or like. That is crazy. Just like there is a wide diversity in preschools and colleges, there should be the same diversity in K-12 schools. Also, anyone who has a child with a learning disability knows that such kids just cannot EVER compete on the same level as kids that don’t. In the past, such kids were labeled as stupid and unable to accomplish anything in life, which is patently untrue. I would hate to doom these kids to a low level track in life when with support they can achieve much, much more. Yet, the Common Core, which is rigid and inflexible, is a step backwards where we don’t want to go.

          4. “That’s why we need diversity in education, not a “one size fits all” as the Common Core is. Parents should be able to select schools based on what their children need, not on where they happen to live.”

            I just want to point out again that the “need” is to produce an educated workforce that is employable in the 21 century.

            and further than where we fall down in comparison to other countries is not on “diversity” or “classics” but critical thinking and the ability to solve practical real-world problems that are encountered in the workplace.

            you cannot justify tax dollars for personal edification. it has to have a ROI to the people who pay the taxes.

            ” Unfortunately, the monopoly of public education forces people to pay taxes to school districts that they may not even use or like. That is crazy.”

            you have local elections for that, right?

            ” Just like there is a wide diversity in preschools and colleges, there should be the same diversity in K-12 schools.”

            I’m all for diversity as long as the kids meet the academic standards that relate to the workforce requirement AND that we MEASURE their progress so that they can get extra help if they need it to master the subjects they have trouble with.

            “Also, anyone who has a child with a learning disability knows that such kids just cannot EVER compete on the same level as kids that don’t. In the past, such kids were labeled as stupid and unable to accomplish anything in life, which is patently untrue. I would hate to doom these kids to a low level track in life when with support they can achieve much, much more. Yet, the Common Core, which is rigid and inflexible, is a step backwards where we don’t want to go.”

            My view of LD kids is that they are entitled to a REASONABLE public education in terms of costs AND that they be on a track appropriate to their abilities and strives to make the most of the abilities

            If you want specialized, personalized training for your child over and above what the public schools provide, then that is your responsibility – you cannot take tax money that is collected allocated, justified as investments in work force training for your own personal needs.

            If you have a special needs child, You have my respect – your life is very different and you have to be dedicated to your child and I do not blame you for wanting the best for him/her that you can get but at the same time you cannot expect the requirements to train a workforce to be damaged and undermined by efforts to turn education funding into personal funding.

            Last I heard, our school system spends more than twice as much on special needs kids. You already get twice as much as other kids – for your child.

            you’d surely not get this much in a private school situation even if you managed to get tax dollars on some level

            we have people locally now that despite getting twice as much funding, still sue the schools for more because they believe the schools are not doing enough. But at some point there has to be a limit and twice as much is a good start point because you know that the child is not being trained to be a part of the traditional workforce and likely will need assistance his whole life – and we do that also – right?

            Again, I have enormous respect for people whose children are special… and I’d agree that we’re not training them for the traditional workforce (although we have local – tax-funded programs for adults to work at certain jobs that are within their skills).

            If we can do a better, more cost-effective job with their needs – I’m all for it. And in this case, if you think you cn make better use of the 10k that most kids get – and you can – then maybe we should look at it

            Most local private schools K-12 for regular kids are 10-20K per kid…. and they still don’t have all the amenities and resources that the public schools have – for kids.

          5. I was just curious.

            how much tax money do you think you are entitled to if you were able to take it and spend it yourself on what you thought best?

            just what you paid into it or more?

          6. We should not be relying on property taxes as a source of school funding. I live in a community that receives very little money from the state and well over 94% of the funding comes from local property taxpayers, so yes, I am entitled to every dollar I spend that goes to the schools. Also it is very difficult to elect members to school boards who are not in the pockets of the unions. If you are a renegade and fiscal conservative, you won’t get elected or if you do, you are targeted. Also think of this: there is less money for students (at least in Illinois) because of the huge pension costs spent on retirees. How do you stand on that? Should schools be squeezed financially so that former teachers can collect $80K per year or more? Perhaps if pensions were more in line with the private sector, or that teachers didn’t make over $100K per year, there might be more funds for actual teaching.

          7. re:

            ” We should not be relying on property taxes as a source of school funding. I live in a community that receives very little money from the state and well over 94% of the funding comes from local property taxpayers, so yes, I am entitled to every dollar I spend that goes to the schools.”

            well no. you entitled to the percent of your taxes that go to schools – not the other part that pays for law enforcement and other services you use.

            and I’d sign on to that for anyone that wants to do it since most schools spend 10K per kid and what most folks with kids pay far less than that in property taxes.

            Also it is very difficult to elect members to school boards who are not in the pockets of the unions.”

            oh paleeeze… there are far more voters than union members…

            “If you are a renegade and fiscal conservative, you won’t get elected or if you do, you are targeted. Also think of this: there is less money for students (at least in Illinois) because of the huge pension costs spent on retirees. ”

            our system works with elections. if you want change, you have to convince a majority that it’s the right way to go. If a majority of voters want to do it – then so be it.

            “How do you stand on that? Should schools be squeezed financially so that former teachers can collect $80K per year or more?”

            I do not know what they get in Illinois but I can tell you in Va (because I do taxes) that many teachers don’t even get a third of that in pension.

            ” Perhaps if pensions were more in line with the private sector, or that teachers didn’t make over $100K per year, there might be more funds for actual teaching.”

            Our teachers here make about 65K as they approach 30 years… and they get maybe a 1/3 of that in pension.

            I’m ALL FOR converting to 401(K) pensions but once we sign a contract with current teachers we have to honor it – and as I said. it’s not as rich as you think.

            but now you’re expanding this way out from the original complaint, right?

            Is your real complaint about public schools per se?

          8. You are the one, Larry G, who has expanded the conversation beyond Common Core. Honestly I think you know nothing about how schools operate. Plus you are from VA. Things are very different in Illinois apparently. This is a huge union state controlled by unions at every level. Teachers here make significantly more than those in our neighboring states with pensions that are 75% of the average of their last 4 years salary. (These last 4 years are inflated by 6% as well.) So yes, pensions range from $70K to $200K per year. Illinois is nearly bankrupt because of this pension situation and education funds have been cut. When you talk about how special ed students receive “more than their fair share,” you might consider that perhaps that is because pensions and salaries are eating up a lot of tax money.

          9. Actually I have only responded to the comments – check back and you’ll see. others may have also asked questions………

            “Honestly I think you know nothing about how schools operate.”

            actually I do. I have direct knowledge through people who work there

            Plus you are from VA. Things are very different in Illinois apparently.

            that could be, I did say I did not know how Illinois work and you – no Virginia – right?

            “This is a huge union state controlled by unions at every level. Teachers here make significantly more than those in our neighboring states with pensions that are 75% of the average of their last 4 years salary. (These last 4 years are inflated by 6% as well.) So yes, pensions range from $70K to $200K per year.’

            okay… there are still more voters than unions and if you can’t take care of THIS problem with votes, how do you expect to win on ANY issue?

            ” Illinois is nearly bankrupt because of this pension situation and education funds have been cut.”

            I thought you said it was a Union-controlled state. How did they cut funds?

            ” When you talk about how special ed students receive “more than their fair share,” you might consider that perhaps that is because pensions and salaries are eating up a lot of tax money.”

            no and you know it’s not true because the special ed folks have the same problem in every state wanting more than what schools will give regardless of the union or pension situation.

            it’s always a question of what is an “appropriate education” and how much it costs – then the parents argue that the schools have the money if they cut other things or get more funding – every state – no matter unions or not – it’s the same argument. In Union states, they blame the unions, in non-union states they blame other spending.

            be honest here. Isn’t this true?

            I’m not opposing your efforts – just wanting the truth to shine over the rhetoric. I support schools and I support education of special needs kids and I remember the time when they couldn’t even go to school much less argue about how much money should be spent.

            You want more money essentially , right?

            I don’t blame you but isn’t that the basic deal here?

          10. I’m done commenting. You just want to win the argument. I have worked in public schools for the past 14 years and know more than you do. (Sorry – second hand knowledge just isn’t the same thing.) I have seen the changes in education over the past 30 years, not only as a parent, but as an employee. It is very difficult to change an entrenched bureaucracy, especially in a state controlled by Democrats with super majorities. And yes, pensions are controlled by the state legislature. It would take pages and pages to describe the problems in Illinois. I’m done responding.

          11. I don’t need to win the argument but I’m not going to you win using biased views and misinformation which seems to be par for the course on many things these days.

            I am married to a teacher of 30 years. Are you a teacher?

            Every day, I hear of trying to manage classroom of 15-25 which always has one or two undisciplined brats who totally consumer the teacher who is trying to get them all education.

            they work their asses of trying to do this – and then we have the “critics” who begrudge them their benefits that they work so hard to earn – over partisan ideology.

            there are no unions here and teachers do not earn 100K and do not get 80K pensions.

            we DO spend more than 10K per kid and it comes out of everyone’s taxes no matter they have kids or not.

            The average taxpayer with kid pays about 25% in taxes of the actual cost to educate their child.

            there are problems in urban areas and perhaps in Illinois – I don’t know

            .. but I do know this – Common Core is not some liberal conspiracy to defraud people.

            it’s a common sense attempt to standardize curricula to make it easier for kids when their parents move and to make it more cost-effective instead of having to maintain 50 different standards – and it’s what every one of the 25 countries that clean our clocks academically – do.

            we have way too many people blaming teachers and blaming other institutions now days IMHO rather than getting off their butts and getting involved in elections and making change.

            that’s harder than blather about bureaucracies and conspiracies for sure but what exactly are your options?

            you’re lucky you live in a country where you CAN vote.

            Now I’m done also. Have a good one

    2. RFBrown

      ‘Public Service Unions’ is an oxymoron. Unions, by definition, serve themselves, not their members and certainly not the public, and in this case, never the children who are the purpose of all efforts and hold our future. Acceptance of employment to serve the public should come with no third party parasites which drain the lifeblood and spirit from service and all the money possible from the taxpayer.
      First, get rid of the unions, second, require parental control of curricula, third, set high standards for students; those who don’t meet the standards get extra help and are left back to get it. Put the education of children first: societal values from First Principles; the Bible, the Constitution, the writings of the Founders and their sources. Then STEM. Then Arts. Then homework.

      1. Are the teachers in Massachusetts, the 7th best schools in the world – unionized?

  5. Florida resident

    All the discussions about “schools failing our kids”
    are reviewed in “Bad Students, not Bad Schools” by Robert Weissberg,
    http://www.amazon.com/Bad-Students-Not-Schools/dp/141281345X
    -
    Technical question is to what extent Dr. Murray and other parents in the area feel that they are already paying enough property taxes, to feel entitled to essentially private school for free, based on those taxes.
    I sincerely wish them success in this action (no sarcasm here).
    Our two kids went sequentially to the same public High School here in Florida, and daughter had to go (before that) for 3 years to a private Middle School. To our tastes, particular HS was OK. We used also the option of taking the courses (lots of them) in a nearby University, based on the so-called “Dual Enrollment” option.
    -
    There is also the “real estate” aspect of charter schools in { Super-zip areas (using terminology from “Coming Apart” book by Dr. Murray) }, see Steve Sailer’s
    “Charter Schools and Real Estate Plays “,
    http://isteve.blogspot.com/2012/09/charter-schools-and-real-estate-plays.html
    With deep respect of and best wishes to
    nice family of Dr. Murray,
    your F.r.

    1. Anon#10

      Prior to Weissberg’s book mentioned by F.R.,
      the “Real Education” by Murray was published:
      http://www.amazon.com/Real-Education-Bringing-Americas-Schools/dp/0307405397/ref=pd_sim_b_1
      Being devoted mostly to college-level educatin, it has more or less the same tonality.

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